作文中常用句套:
下文中出现的 A,B, “…”(某事物), “sb”( somebody),
要在写作中要根据上下文进行适当替换.

开头:
When it comes to …, some think …
There is a public debate today that …
A is a commen way of …, but is it a wise one?
Recentaly the problem has been brought into focus.

提出观点:
Now there is a growing awareness that…
It is time we explore the truth of …
Nowhere in history has the issue been more visible.

进一步提出观点:
… but that is only part of the history.
Another equally important aspect is …
A is but one of the many effects. Another is …
Besides, other reasons are…

提出假想例子的方式:
Suppose that…
Just imagine what would be like if…
It is reasonable to expect…
It is not surprising that…

举普通例子:
For example(instance),…
… such as A,B,C and so on (so forth)
A good case in point is…
A particular example for this is…

引用:
One of the greatest early writers said …
“Knowledge is power”, such is the remard of …
“……”. That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise…).
“……”. How often we hear such words like there.

讲故事
(先说故事主体),this story is not rare.
…, such delimma we often meet in daily life.
…, the story still has a realistic significance.

提出原因:
There are many reasons for …
Why …. , for one thing,…
The answer to this problem involves many factors.
Any discussion about this problem would inevitably involves …
The first reason can be obiviously seen.
Most people would agree that…
Some people may neglect that in fact …
Others suggest that…
Part of the explanation is …

进行对比:
The advantages for A for outweigh the disadvantages of…
Although A enjoys a distinct advantage …
Indeed , A carries much weight than B when sth is concerned.
A maybe … , but it suffers from the disadvantage that…

承上启下:
To understand the truth of …, it is also important to see…
A study of … will make this point clear

让步:
Certainly, B has its own advantages, such as…
I do not deny that A has its own merits.


结尾:
>From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw
the conclusion that …
In summary, it is wiser …
In short…
在作文中引用合适的名言警句,会给你的文章增色许多,

托福作文引语和句套

。这里收集了我本人喜爱的一些名言,可能会对你有用。我们使用引用的位置可以在开头结尾或正文段落中,
常见的使用形式如下:

One of the greatest early writers said …
“Knowledge is power”, such is the remard of …
“……”. That is how sb comment ( criticize/ praise…).
“……”. How often we hear such words like there.


Useful quotations
逆境
by Robert Collier
In every adversity there lies the seed of an equivalent advantage. In every defeat there is a lesson showing you how to win the victory next time.
努力与成功
by Ann Landers
Opportunities are usually disguised as hard work, so most people don’t recognize them.
坚持
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
No one can cheat you out of ultimate success but yourselves.

Confucius 孔子
Our greatest glory is not in never falling…
but in rising every time we fall.

坚持
Mother Teresa
To keep a lamp burning we have to keep putting oil in it.

Henry Ford
Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it inuo small jobs.

Winston Churchill
Never, never, never, never give up.

Albert Einstein
In uhe middle of difficulty lies opportunity.

努力与成功
by Crassus
Those who aim at great deeds must suffer greatly.
Thomas Edison
There is no substitute for hard work.

Leo Tolstoi
The strongest of all warriors are these two- Time and Patience.

Thomas Jefferson
I’m a great believer in luck,
and I find the harder I work…
the more I have of it.
Robert Collier
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day in and day out.

Ray A. Croc
Luck is a dividend of sweat. The more you sweat, the luckier you get.

实际经验与间接经验
You’ll learn more about a road by traveling it…
than by consulting all the maps in the world.
动机与结果
Vince Lombardi
Winning isn’t everything…
but wanting to win is.

John F. Kennedy
We choose to go!to the moon and other things , oot because they are easy, but because they are hard.

Thucydides
The strong do what they will.
The weak do what they must.

为人态度:
John Wooden
Talent is God given–Be Humble.
Fame is man given– Be Thankful.
Conceit is self given –Be Careful.

行动:
Theodore Roosevelt
Do what you can , with what you have , with where you are.

Publilius Syrus Maxim
No one knows what he can do till he tries.

Terence
There is nothing so easy but that it becomes difficult when you do it reluctantly.


Thomas Fuller
A wise man turns chance into good fortune.

William Hazlitt
Prosperity is a great teacher;
adversity is a greater.


William Penn
No pains, no palm;
no thorns, no throne;
no gall , no glory;
no cross, no crown.

Will Rogers
Even if you’re on the right track, you’ll get run over… if you just sit there.

Opportunity rarely knocks on your door.
Knock rather on opportunity’s door if you ardently wish to enter.

成功与失败
Vince Lombardi
It’s not whether you get knocked down.
…It’s whether you get up again.

Winston Churchill
An optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity;
a pessimist sees a calamity in every opportunity.

热情(年轻/年老)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.

信心
James Allen
The will to do springs from the knowledge that we can do.

Samuel Johnson
Few things are impossible to diligence and skill.

Aughey
Lost time is never found again.

Voltaire
No problem can stand the assault of sustained thinking.

Napoleon
Victory belongs to the most persevering.

细心
Euipides
Leave no stone unturned.

计划与工作
Norman Vincent Peale
Plan your work for today and every day;
then work your plan.

Henry Ford
Failure is only the opportunity to more intelligently begin again.

Thomas Edison
I start where the last man left off.

理想与现实
What the mind of man can conceive and believe,
the mind of a man can achieve.

勤奋
Benjamin Franklin
Plough deep while sluggards sleep.

目标
Henry David Thoreau
In the lone run men hit only what they aim at.

幸运
Emily Dickinson
Luck is not chance…
It’s toil…
Fortune’s expensive smile is earned.

勤奋
Thomas Edison
Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration.
Useful Quotations

想象力
Albert Einstein
Imagination is more important than knowledge.

挑战:
Walter Begehot
The great pleasure in life is doing what people say you cannot do.

机会与准备
Abraham Lincoln
I will prepare and some day my chance will come.

信心与事实
Henry Ford
Whether you think you can or think you can’t — you are right.

english Proverb
Where there’s a will there’s a way.
There is no failure excepting no longer trying.
Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity

 

0人围观

Unit Nine
The Definition of a Gentleman

  It is almost a definition of a gentleman to say he is one who never inflicts pain. This description is both refined and, as far as it goes, accurate. He is mainly occupied in merely removing the obstacles which hinder the free and unembarrassed action of those about him. His benefits may be considered as parallel to what are called comforts or convenience in arrangements of a personal nature: like an easy chair or a good fire, which do their part in dispelling cold and fatigue, though nature provides both means of rest and animal heat without them. The true gentleman in like manner carefully avoids whatever may cause a jar or a jolt in the minds of those with whom he is cast; – all clashing of opinion, or collision of feeling, all restraint, or suspicion, or gloom, or resentment; his great concern being to made every one at their ease and at home. He has his eyes on all his company: he is tender towards the bashful, gentle towards the distant, and merciful towards the absurd; he can recollect to whom he is speaking; he guards against unseasonable allusions, or topics which may irritate; he is seldom prominent in conversation, and never wearisome.
  He makes light of favors while he does them, and seems to be receiving when he is conferring. He never speaks of himself except when compelled, defends himself by a mere retort, he has no ears for slander or gossip, is scrupulous in imputing motives to those who interfere with him, and interprets every thing for the best. He is never mean or little in his disputes, never takes unfair advantage, never mistakes personalities or sharp sayings for arguments, or insulates evil which he dare not say out. From a long-sighted prudence, he observes the maxim of the ancient sage, that we should ever conduct ou

1人围观

血亲

i think there is nothing in the world could resist the power of the blood relationship.
i think there is something else in the world is more earnest than the blood relationship.
   with the supernatural power in the blood relationship,family is full of love.the feel of the member of family will always be same,affected without the change of time or space.as follow the obligation will permeate every corner of the life because of the blood relationship,we must do something as the responsibility without chioce.the responsibility is the element of people’s existence,but on my view the responsibility change the color of love.and it becomes the burden mede me breath hardly.
   there is one kind of feeling:two persons,no blood relationship ,no allure from opposite sex,no obigation,because of honesty,because of trust,because of once in the same boat.in my heart,i called it friend,when i have a friend,once i have a hunch that we will be divided by time and space,the scare is full of my mind.i even fantasy that if she is my sister,maybe this trouble will disappear and could not bother me!but i understand it clearly:how precious that i can find a person who has no blood relationship with me and treats me with considertion!i konw that’s what i want to get all my life…

i can do anything for my family members because of the blood relationship.
i can do anything for my friends because of the emotion exceed the blood relationship.

4人围观

PETS四级简介与样题

PETS 第四级考试由笔试试卷和口试试卷组成,

PETS四级简介与样题

    笔试试卷(140分钟)分四部分:听力、英语知识运用、阅读理解和写作

    口试试卷(12分钟)分三节考查考生的口语交际能力。

    笔试和口试都使用英文指导语。

    (一)听力  该部分由A、B、C节组成,考查考生理解英语口语的能力。

    A节(5题):考查考生理解详细信息的能力。要求考生根据所听到的一段180 – 220词的对话或独白的内容,填补句子或表格中的空白。录音材料播放两遍。

    B节(5题):考查考生理解总体和特定信息的能力。要求考生根据所听到的一段280-320词的对话或独白,回答5道简答题。录音材料播放两遍。

    C节(10题):考查考生获取特定信息,理解主旨要义和详细信息,猜测词义、判断演讲者态度、意图的能力。要求考生根据所听到的三段对话或独白(每段200-300词),从每题所给的4个选择项中选出最佳选项。每段录音材料只播放一遍。问题不在录音中播放,仅在试卷上印出。

    考试进行时,考生将答案写或划在试卷上;听力部分结束前,考生有5分钟的时间将试卷上的答案誊写或涂到答题卡1上。该部分所需时间约为30分钟(含誊写和转涂时间)。

    (二)英语知识运用

    该部分不仅考查考生对诸如连贯性和一致性等语段特征的辨识能力,还考查考生对用于一定语境中的语言规范成分的掌握,这些语言规范成分包括广泛的词汇、表达方式和结构。

    共20小题。在一篇240-280词的文章中留出20个空白,要求考生从每题所给的4个选择项中选出最佳选项,使补足后的文章意思通顺、前后连贯、结构完整。其中有12-15道题考查词汇,5-8道题题考查语法和篇章结构。该部分所需时间约为15分钟。考生在答题卡1上作答。

    (三)阅读理解 

    该部分由A、B两节组成,考查考生理解书面英语的能力。

    A节(20题):考查考生理解具体信息,抓文章大意,猜测生词并且进行推断等的能力。要求考生根据所提供的4篇文章的内容(总长度约为1,600词),从每题所给的4个选择项中选出最佳选项。

    B节:考查考生准确理解文章的能力。要求考生阅读1篇约400词的文章,将其中5个划线部分(约150词)翻译成中文。

    该部分所需时间约为60分钟。考生在答题卡1上作答A节,在答题卡2上作答B节。

    (四)写作

    该部分考查考生的书面表达能力。

    考生根据提示信息(中/英文)写出一篇160-200词的短文。提示信息的形式有主题句、写作提纲、规定情景、图、表等。

    该部分所需时间约为35分钟。考生在答题卡2上作答。

    (五)口试

    口试分A、B、C三节,测试考生英语口语的交际能力。

    每次口试采取两名口试教师和两名考生的形式。一名口试教师不参与交谈,专事评分;另一名口试教师主持口试,与考生交谈并评分。专事评分的教师所给分数的权重占考生口试成绩的三分之二,主持口试的教师所给分数的权重占考生口试成绩的三分之一。

    A节:考查考生作自我介绍的能力。此节中两考生无需相互交流(如需要,也可)。该节约需2分钟时间。

    B节:考查考生就信息卡上的图片讨论并解决相关问题的能力。本节的形式有解决问题、排序、讨论、决策、或就两个完全相反的观点阐述自己的观点等。该节约需3分钟时间。

    C节:考查考生针对信息卡上的图片进行连续表达及简短讨论的能力。该节约需7分钟时间。

    (六)笔试结构表

部分

为考生提供
的信息

指导语
语言  

考查要点

题型

题目
数量  

采分点

权重(%)

时间
(分钟)

I
听力*
(接受)

A

1段独白或对话
(180-220词)
(放两遍录音)  

英语

详细信息

填补句子或
表格的空白

5  

5    

30

30

B

1段独白或对话(280-320词)(放两遍录音)

英语

总体或特定信息

简答题

5

10

C

3段独白或对话
(每段200-300词)
(放一遍录音)  

英语

理解大意和细节
推断词义
判断态度/意图

多项选择题
(四选一)  

10

10  

II 英语
知识运用
(接受)

1篇文章
(240-280词)

英语

语法、词汇
和结构  

完形填空
多项选择题
(四选一)

20

20

10

15

III
阅读理解
(接受)

A

4篇文章
(共约1600词)

英语

理解大意和细节
猜测词义
进行推断

多项选择题
(四选一)  

20  

20  

25

60

B

一篇文章(约400词)
5处划线部分
(约150词)  

英语

理解的
准确性

英译中  

5

15

10

IV
写作
(产出)

中英文提示信息
以及有关要求

   英语

书面表达

短文
(160-200词)

1

20

25    

35

总计

65+1

100

100

140

    * 问题不在录音中播放,仅在试卷上印出。

    (七)口试结构表

时间(分钟)

形式

为考生提
供的信息

考查要点

考生需提供的信息

分数

A

2

口试教师与
考生对话

口试教师
提出的问题

提供个人信息

* 提供个人信息
* 谈论过去及现在的经历
* 谈论将来的打算

5

B

3

两考生讨论  

信息卡
(图片)

讨论及
解决问题  

* 交换信息
* 表达个人观点

C

7

考生就信息卡内容连续表达并
进行简短讨论

信息卡
(图片)

连续表达

连续表达个人观点并论证

    (八)考试结构图PETS四级考试

    * 问题不在录音中播放,仅在试卷上印出。

PETS Level 4 Sample Tasks

(PETS四级样题)


Section I Listening Comprehension,Part AYou will hear a recording of a conversation between Mary and John about the Hilton Hotel and the Hotel Rossiya. Listen to it and fill out the table with the information you’ve heard for questions 1-5. Some of the information has been completed for you. Write not more than 3 words in each numbered box. You will hear the recording twice. You now have 25 seconds to read the table below.

Information about the Hilton Hotel and the Hotel Rossiya 

The Hilton Hotel

The Hotel Rossiya

Number of Bedrooms

1

3,200

Number of Employees

2

3,000

Number of Restaurants

12

3

Number of Elevators

4

Country of Location

U.S.

5

Tapescript:

M: Hi, Mary. How’s everything?W: Fine. You know, John, I’m planning to go to Las Vegas for a holiday and would like to stay in a large hotel. Anything to recommend?M: Er? the Hilton Hotel there is quite a large one. It has ? er ? 3,174 bedrooms. It also has 12 restaurants and about 125,000 square feet of convention space. There’re a 10-acre recreation deck and a stage show dining hall. Over 3,600 people now work for it.W: Oh, great! Is it the largest hotel in the U.S.?M: Yes, it is. But it may not be the largest in the world. Er ? as far as I know, the Hotel Rossiya in Moscow is larger than Hilton. It is a 12-story building that has 3,200 rooms. It can provide accommodation for 6,000 guests. It takes nearly 8 years and a half to spend one night in each room. Besides, there’s a 21-story “Presidential tower” in the central courtyard. It has 15 restaurants and 93 elevators. And it employs about 3,000 people. The ballroom is known as the world’s largest. Russians are not allowed to live in that hotel. And foreigners are charged 16 times more than the very low rate charged Russian officials.W: It’s unbelievable ?[fade out]

Now you will hear the recording again. (The recording is repeated.)

That is the end of Part A.

Part BYou will hear a radio weather forecast. Answer questions 6-10 while listening. Use not more than 5 words for each answer. You will hear the recording twice. You now have 40 seconds to read the questions.

When will showers reach south-west England and the southern coast of Wales?  

6

  

What will the minimum temperature be in the south during the night?  

7

  

On what day of the week do you think this weather forecast was given?  

8

  

What will be the general feeling about the weekend in the Netherlands?  

9

  

What part of England will be cloudy and dry over the weekend?  

10

Tapescript

W: Hello. It’s been another warm and fine day for most of us. Temperatures in south-east England reached twenty-six degrees Centigrade by mid-afternoon, and Brighton had fifteen hours of lovely sunshine. But already the weather is beginning to change, I’m afraid, and during the night showers will slowly move in from the Atlantic to reach south-west England and the southern coast of Wales by early morning.The rest of the country will have a very mild, dry night with minimum temperatures no lower than fifteen degrees in the south, a little cooler ? eleven degrees or so ? in the north. Any remaining showers in northwest Scotland will pass quickly, to leave a mild, dry night there too.And now, the outlook for Friday and the weekend. Well, southern Europe will once again get the best of the weekend weather, and if your holiday starts this weekend, then southern Spain is the place to go, with temperatures of thirty-four degrees along the Mediterranean coast. At the eastern end of the Med, too, you can expect uninterrupted sunshine and temperatures of up to thirty-two degrees Centigrade in Greece and south-east Italy, but further north the weather’s not so settled. Much of France, Belgium and the Netherlands will be cloudy with occasional rain and maximum temperatures will be around twenty-two degrees ? very disappointing for this time of the year.Scotland and Northern Ireland will have heavy rain for much of the weekend and temperatures will drop to a cool seventeen degrees. Across most of England the weather will be cloudy but mainly dry with sunny periods. And when the sun does come out temperatures could rise to a maximum of twenty-three degrees.

Now you will hear the recording again. (The recording is repeated.)

That is the end of Part B.

Part CYou will hear three dialogues or monologues. Before listening to each one, you will have time to read the questions related to it. While listening, answer each question by choosing A, B, C or D. After listening, you will have time to check your answer. You will hear each piece once only.Questions 11-13 are based on the following talk introducing Emily Dickinson, a well-known American poet. You now have 30 seconds to read questions 11-13.

11. How long did Emily Dickinson live in the house where she was born?[A] almost all her life[B] less than half her life[C] until 1830[D] before 1872

12. Which of the following is true of Emily Dickinson?[A] She was not a productive poet.[B] She saw many of her poems published.[C] She was not a sociable person.[D] She had contact only with a few poets.

13. When was Emily Dickinson widely recognized?[A] after Henry James referred highly to her[B] after seven of her poems were published[C] after her poems became known to others[D] after she was dead for many years

Tapescript:

M: Emily Dickinson is one of the greatest American poets. She was born in a typical New England village in Massachusetts on December 10, 1830. She was the second child of the family. She died in the same house fifty-six years later. During her life time she never left her native land. She left her home state only once. She left her village very few times. And after 1872 she rarely left her house and yard. In the last years of her life she retreated to a smaller and smaller circle of family and friends. In those later years she dressed in white, avoided strangers, and communicated chiefly through notes and poems even with intimates. The doctor who attended her illness was allowed to “examine” her in another room, seeing her walk by an opened door. She was thought of as a “strange” figure in her home village. When she died on May 15, 1886, she was unknown to the rest of the world. Only seven of her poems had appeared in print.But to think Emily Dickinson only as a strange figure is a serious mistake. She lived simply and deliberately. She faced the essential facts of life. According to Henry James, a famous American novelist, she was one of those on whom nothing was lost. Only by thus living could Dickinson manage both to fulfill her obligations as a daughter, a sister, and a housekeeper and to write on the average one poem a day.She read only a few books but knew them deeply. Her poems are simple but remarkably rich. Not until 1950s was she recognized as one of the greatest American poets.

Section II Use of englishRead the following text. Choose the best word for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET

(1).During the 1980s, unemployment and underemployment in some countries was as high as 90 per cent. Some countries did not 1 enough food; basic needs in housing and clothing were not

(2) . Many of these countries looked to the industrial processes of the developed nations

(3) solutions.

(4) , problems cannot always be solved by copying the industrialized nations. Industry in the developed nations is highly automated and very

(5) . It provides fewer jobs than labor-intensive industrial processes, and highly

(6) workers are needed to

(7)and repair the equipment. These workers must be trained,

(8) many nations do not have the necessary training institutions. Thus, the

(9) of importing industry becomes higher. Students must be sent abroad to

(10) vocational and professional training.

(11) , just to begin training, the students must

(12) learn English, French, German, or Japanese. The students then spend many years abroad, and

(13) do not return home.All nations agree that science and technology

(14) be shared. The point is: countries

(15) the industrial processes of the developed nations need to look carefully

(16) the costs, because many of these costs are

(17) . Students from these nations should

(18) the problems of the industrialized countries closely.

(19) care, they will take home not the problems of science and technology,

(20) the benefits.

1. [A]generate [B]raise [C]produce [D]manufacture

2. [A]answered [B]met [C]calculated [D]remembered

3. [A]for [B]without [C]as [D]about

4. [A]Moreover [B]Therefore [C]Anyway [D]However

5. [A]expensive [B]mechanical [C]flourishing [D]complicated

6. [A]gifted [B]skilled [C]trained [D]versatile

7. [A]keep [B]maintain [C]retain [D] protect

8. [A]since [B]so [C]and [D]yet

9. [A]charge [B]price [C]cost [D]value

10. [A]accept [B]gain [C]receive [D]absorb

11. [A]Frequently [B]Incidentally [C]Deliberately [D]Eventually

12. [A]soon [B]quickly [C]immediately [D]first

13. [A]some [B]others [C]several [D]few

14. [A]might [B]should [C]would [D]will

15. [A]adopting [B]conducting [C]receiving [D]adjusting

16. [A]to [B]at [C]on [D]about

17. [A]opaque [B]secret [C]sealed [D]hidden

18. [A]tackle [B]learn [C]study [D]manipulate

19. [A]In [B]Through [C]With [D]Under

20. [A]except [B]nor [C]or [D]but

Section III Reading ComprehensionPart ARead the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.

Text 1

It was 3:45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and a final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia’s Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure was passed by the convincing vote of 15 to 10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on via the group’s on-line service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: “We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isn’t just something that happened in Australia. It’s world history.”The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally Ill law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief; others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia ? where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part ? other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the U.S. and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling.Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death ? probably by a deadly injection or pill ? to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors. After a “cooling off” period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54-year-old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally Ill law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. “I’m not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how I’d go, because I’ve watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks,” he says.

1. From the second paragraph we learn that[A] the objection to euthanasia is diminishing in some countries.[B] physicians and citizens have the same view on euthanasia.[C] technological changes are chiefly responsible for the new law.[D] it takes time to appreciate the significance of laws passed.

2. By saying that “observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling”, the authormeans that[A] observers are taking a wait-and-see attitude towards the future of euthanasia.[B] there is a possibility of similar bills being passed in the U.S. and Canada.[C] observers are waiting to see the movement end up in failure.[D] the process of the bill taking effect may finally come to a stop.

3. When Lloyd Nickson is close to death, he will[A] undergo a cooling off period of seven days.[B] experience the suffering of a lung cancer patient.[C] have an intense fear of terrible suffering.[D] face his death with the calm characteristic of euthanasia.4. What is the author’s attitude towards euthanasia?[A] Hostile.[B] Suspicious.[C] Approving.[D] Indifferent.5. We can infer from the text that the author believes the success of the right-to-diemovement is[A] only a matter of time.[B] far from certain.[C] just an illusion.[D] a shattered hope.

Part BRead the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

Do animals have rights? This is how the question is usually put. It sounds like a useful, ground-clearing way to start.

61) Actually, it isn’t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.On one view of rights, to be sure, it necessarily follows that animals have none.

62) Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements. Therefore, animals cannot have rights. The idea of punishing a tiger that kills somebody is absurd; for exactly the same reason, so is the idea that tigers have rights. However, this is only one account, and by no means an uncontested one. It denies rights not only to animals but also to some people ? for instance, to infants, the mentally incapable and future generations. In addition, it is unclear what force a contract can have for people who never consented to it: how do you reply to somebody who says “I don’t like this contract”?The point is this: without agreement on the rights of people, arguing about the rights of animals is fruitless.

63) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all. This is a false choice. Better to start with another, more fundamental, question: is the way we treat animals a moral issue at all?Many deny it.

64) Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice. Any regard for the suffering of animals is seen as a mistake ? a sentimental displacement of feeling that should properly be directed to other humans.This view, which holds that torturing a monkey is morally equivalent to chopping wood, may seem bravely “logical”. In fact it is simply shallow: the confused center is right to reject it. The most elementary form of moral reasoning ? the ethical equivalent of learning to crawl ? is to weigh others’ interests against one’s own. This in turn requires sympathy and imagination: without which there is no capacity for moral thought. To see an animal in pain is enough, for most, to engage sympathy.

65) When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind’s instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.

Section IV WritingWidespread tobacco consumption has led to grave consequences, yet the tobacco companies are still claiming that they make a valuable contribution to the world economy.Write an essay

1) criticizing their view and

2) justifying your stand.In your essay, make full use of the information provided in the pictures printed below.You should write approximately 160 ? 200 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

 

ORAL TESTPart AInterlocutor:1,Good morning/afternoon. Could I have your mark sheets, please? Thank you.(Hand over the mark sheets to the Assessor)2,My name is …and this is my colleague … He/she is just going to be listening to us. So, you are … and …? Thank you.3,First of all we’d like to know something about you, so I’m going to ask some questions about yourselves.(Select one or more questions from each of the following categories as appropriate.)

Hometown1,Where are you from?2,How long have you lived there?3,What’s it like living there?

Family

· What can you tell me about your family?Work / Study

· Can you tell me something about your work or studies?(To a student)

· What do you specialize in?

· What do you enjoy most about your studies?

· What subject(s) do you like best?

· Have you ever worked during the vacation?

· What kind of job did you do?

· How did you like it?(To an adult who already has a job)

· What job do you do?

· Do you like it? And why?

· What qualifications did you need in order to get your “job”?Leisure

· Do you have any hobbies?

· How did you become interested in (whatever hobby the candidate enjoys)?

· Which do you prefer, watching TV or going to the cinema? What sort ofprogram / film do you like to watch?

· What kinds of sports are you interested in? Why?

· What kinds of music do you enjoy most? Why?

· How do you usually spend your holidays?

· Is there anywhere you would particularly like to visit? Why?Future Plans

· What do you hope to do in your professional life in the next few years?

· How important is English for your future plans? And please give reasons tosupport your view.

Part B

Interlocutor:

· Now I’d like you to talk about something between yourselves but speak so thatwe can hear you. You should take care to share the opportunity of speaking.(Put the picture in front of both candidates and give instructions with reference tothe picture.)

· You have a very close friend whose birthday is coming. Discuss each of thechoices shown in the picture and decide which you’d like to choose forcelebrating his birthday. Give reasons for your decision.

· This picture is for your reference.

· You have three minutes for this.

· Would you like to begin now, please?

Picture

Part C

Interlocutor:

· I’m going to give each of you a picture and I’d like you to first briefly describeand then give your comment on what you see in the picture.(Put Picture 1 in front of both candidates)

· Candidate A, this is your picture. You have three minutes to talk about it.

· Candidate B, listen carefully while Candidate A is speaking. When he/shehas finished, I’d like you to ask him/her a question about what he/she has said.

· Candidate A, would you like to begin now, please?

Candidate A: (three minutes)

Interlocutor:

· Thank you. Now, Candidate B, could you please ask your partner a question?

(Half a minute for asking and answering the question)

(Take back Picture 1 and put Picture 2 in front of both candidates)

· Ok, Candidate B, here is your picture. You also have three minutes to talk aboutyour picture.

· Candidate A, listen carefully while Candidate B is speaking. When he/she isfinished, I’d like you to ask him/her a question about what he/she has said.

· Candidate B, would you like to begin now, please?

Candidate B: (Three minutes)Interlocutor:

· Thank you. Now, Candidate A, could you please ask your partner a question?(Half a minute for asking and answering the question)

· Thank you. That is the end of the test.

Picture 1

Picture 2 Distance

3人围观

                   Let’s Repair It Together!
      It was Monday. I got up very early and was the first to come to the classroom. When I came to my desk and was going to sit down, I found my chair was broken. What could I do? At that
time no one was around.  I quickly changed my chair with Li Ming’s and sat down to read the book as if nothing had happened.
      My classmates came in one after another. After a while, Li Ming came. When he found his chair was broken, he tried to repair it. I didn’t say a word but my face turned red. Soon I ran to the teacher’s office and brought back a hammer. I said to I.i Ming, “Let’s repair it together.”

3人围观

“你吃了吗?”

  除此之外,中国人还问我一些不太习惯的问题,或以一种不太习惯的方式和我讲话,以一种不太习惯的方式和我打招呼,

老外在中国见闻:“你吃了吗?”

。“你吃了吗?”这样的问候很常见。在别的国家,你会说“你好”,或“你过得怎么样?”在中国,你要说“你吃了吗?”人们告诉我,以前,中国很穷,人们总是吃不饱,所以人们见面时最重要的事,就是问问那个人那天吃饱了没有。

  对于外国人来说,知道了这个原因,就不难理解为什么人们问你吃了没有。但我仍不知道该怎样回答。我问了很多人,都没得到一个直接的答案。我想中国人有非常严格的饮食习惯。比如说,他们好像都在同一时间吃午饭,准时似乎也很重要。

  在西方,就不那么重要了。多数人大概在12点左右吃午饭,但有的可能在下午1点或更晚些,或者根本就不吃午饭。我自己的饮食习惯就很特别。 我只在感到饿的时候才吃饭,而具体什么时间,那要看情况而定了。在中国,不管你下午什么时间见到别人,他们总会问:“吃饭了吗?”因为我白天从不吃饭,所以我总是说:“没吃。”跟我打招呼的人显得很奇怪,就问我为什么没吃饭。我解释说,白天我不吃那么多。他们又问我,你不饿吗?我说,下午晚些时候,吃一块三明治或淡一点的东西,或者喝一些巧克力牛奶。

  他们好像没法儿接受一个这样的答案,马上会说:“不行。”我接着笑了起来, 因为我知道他们会给我上一堂课, 讲一通合理的饮食有多么重要。我想告诉他们,我都快40岁了,现在不活得很好吗?但我一直没说出口,因为我知道他们是对的。而且不管怎么说,是我错了,因为我不太清楚该如何回答那种古老的、传统的打招呼方式。

  中国人的问候方式和很多西方人所熟悉的方式有诸多不同。讲完要说的话后,比如“你好”,我们总是习惯地再问一两个问题,比如,“你好吗?”“一切都好吗?”“过得怎么样?”这种问候方式表达了人们对谈话人现状的关心,可以指任何事,诸如工作、人际关系、爱好、体育运动及其他活动,我问了几个中国人, 见了面, 问过好后, 要说的第二句话是什么?可他们总是说: “在中国,人们一般不那么说。人们只是习惯地问声好,仅此而已。”对于这种说法,我很难接受,因为我感到这样做有点太唐突,像少了点什么似的。有人建议说我可以说:“你正忙什么呢?”或更幽默点儿,“你还活着呢?”我很喜欢后面这句话。在瑞典,有时我们也这么说。当人们很久没见面时,会以这种开玩笑的方式打招呼。有时给一个很长时间没通信的朋友发电子邮件,我也会这么写:“嗨,你在干什么呢?你还活着呢?”

  同样,一些西方人还经常发现, 中国人表达拒绝的方式也有点唐突。 在遇到他们不想要的东西时, 大多数人只是说“不”,或“不要”。这种说法让我们感到有点费解。在这种情况下,我们常说“不,谢谢。”这样说感觉有点不一样。我们认为,恰当地运用拒绝方式很重要, 因为我们总会遇到一些街头商贩、人力三轮车的车夫或其他卖东西的人,他们都希望我们能买他们的东西,而我们不要买那些东西。虽然不要,我还是喜欢说话委婉一些,因此我不太喜欢“不要”这个词。我想,这样听上去有些粗鲁,给人一种断然拒绝的感觉。

  然而,我很快就发现,最好的拒绝方式就是说“不要”。所以,我决定接受这种说法。但一年后,我丈夫初到北京时,他也遇到同样的问题。他这个人很有礼貌,因而,他过去总是面带笑容,友好地用我们家乡的方式说“谢谢,不要。”可那样礼貌没有用。 人们听了有点摸不着头脑, 因为刚听到谢谢, 人们很高兴,接下来又意识到他说不想要,顿时感到很失望。后来,我告诉丈夫,只用说“不要”这个词,毕竟这是中国人的习惯嘛。

  

8人围观

                          Lucky or Not?
      When I was a small child, I usually thought it was a good luck to be sick in bed. You see, when you are ill, you can stay home. There is no need to finish so much homework.  Your parents will take care of you. Besides there is always something good to eat. Isn’t it enjoyable to eat so much nice food?
      A week ago, I was really in hospital. It was painful for me to stay in bed for several days. I couldn’t get up. I couldn’t even move. I didn’t want to eat anything though there was a lot before
me. I missed my classmates and teachers so much that I was anxious to get back to meet my friends. I was also worried about my final examination.
      Now I have grown up. I have changed my mind.

4人围观

我和爸爸都有很好的视力,可是妈妈正相反,

初中英语范文 Adjust Our Eyesight-调整我们的视力

。我们俩想帮助妈妈调整好视力,这样她不带眼镜也能看清东西了。可是有趣的是,我和爸爸也有一些东西是视而不见的,比如零乱的房间,蒙尘的家具和肮脏的地板,但妈妈就能清楚地发现并及时打扫干净。

  Father and I both have good eyesight, but mother doesn’t. We want to help mother adjust her eyesight and make her see things clearly without glasses. But it is interesting enough that there are things father and I can’t see, such as untidy rooms, dusty furniture and dirty floors. But mother can see them clearly, and will’ clean them up as soon as possible.

5人围观

  Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following bar chart. In your essay, you should first describe the bar chart, then interpret its meaning, and give your comment on it.

  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  As is apparently betrayed in the bar chart above, at present, workers in some fields and sections of our society are overworking themselves, among whom the self-employed individuals and scientific researchers top the list. The very fact revealed in the chart should arouse the social concern.

  The implied meaning of the bar chart above can be briefly stated as follows. In the first place, to overwork every day has become a common phenomenon in most working units. The national laws and regulations concerning eight-hour working limit are often disobeyed by most employers, which transgresses workers’ deserved rights. In the second place, to overwork constantly does harm to people’s health and psychology. Over the past years, many intellectuals and artists including Gao Xue-ming and Fu Biao die young due to heavy workload and the resulting stress. Last but not least important, frequent extra work disturbs people’s normal life. Every day people are fully occupied with their work so that they do not have time to care their family life and to communicate with their friends and relatives. As a result, they become a working machine. On the whole, overworking does bring us some disadvantages, which should not be neglected.

  In my view, counter-measures should be immediately taken to reverse the current grim situation. To begin with, more strict laws and regulations should be set up to protect workers’ rights. What’s more, a public education campaign should be launched to make people understand the relationship between work and health and that between work and normal life. Only in this way can we build up a harmonious society.

3人围观

Claw Back: 夺回,费力收回

 

  英国连锁超级市场圣斯伯里公司(J Sainsbury)的股票重跌5.7%,这主要是由于稍早时候公司宣布2004至05年的税前盈利将低于市场预期,而且董事会主席彼特,

Claw Back: 夺回,费力收回

。戴维斯 (Peter Davis) 被迫辞职。由于股东对彼特。戴维斯的奖金方案和继任人选不满,该公司于2004年7月8日宣布收回给予戴维斯的奖金,

  外电中有这样的报道:

  The company said the decision to claw back every penny of the bonus was made when the board realized the true scale of Sainsbury’s problems.

  其中claw back表示to get back with great difficulty or effort,即“夺回,费力收回”,例如:Through aggressive advertising the company managed to claw back its share of the market.(公司通过大作广告,成功地夺回了它的部分市场。)

0人围观

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